In the research program, the research team wants to focus on underwater optic flow perception in pinnipeds. Optic flow has recently been described as a source of information available to harbor seals. These animals can probably use optic flow for underwater locomotion, orientation, and navigation, even and especially in turbid waters. In psychophysical experiments, we would like to assess now on the basis of this discovery, if pinnipeds are able to cope with specifics of the underwater optic flow situation such as violations of environmental rigidity. Furthermore, we are interested, if pinnipeds can estimate specific parameters, besides deviations from their heading, from optic flow such as angles turned, and distances travelled. These parameters are crucial for successful path integration, a putative useful tool available in the presence and absence of external cues. Setting-off from these experiments, we are planning to extend research into the direction of (visual) orientation and navigation in general conducting experiments in virtual environments and open-field experiments thereby trying to unravel which mechanisms pinnipeds use to orient and navigate in the open ocean. The results of these experiments will then help to model the behavior of wild animals at sea, thereby linking lab experiments with wildlife research. In addition, the brain areas involved during optic flow perception shall be revealed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with classic brain neuroanatomy.